How Alcohol Affects Crohn’s Disease and the Medicines You Take to Treat It


Mayo Clinic: “Crohn’s disease.”

Crohn’s & Colitis Foundation: “Malnutrition & IBD,” “Substance Abuse,” “What Should I Eat?”

Garth Swanson, MD, associate professor of medicine; director, Crohn’s and Colitis Center, Rush University Medical Center.

Digestion: “Is Moderate Red Wine Consumption Safe in Inactive Inflammatory Bowel Disease?”

Lab Tests Online: “Calprotectin.”

Harvard Medical School: “Leaky gut: What is it, and what does it mean for you?”

Annals of Gastroenterology: “Alcohol and narcotics use in inflammatory bowel disease.”

American College of Rheumatology: “Methotrexate (Rheumatrex, Trexall, Otrexup, Rasuvo).”

National Health Service, U.K.: “Azathioprine.”

Reezwana Chowdhury, MD, assistant professor of medicine, gastroenterology, and hepatology; IBD specialist, Johns Hopkins Medicine.

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